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PRIMARY SOURCE: Reminiscences of Old Hawaii with Account of Early Life by Uldrick Thompson, Sr., 1941 was written for his four children, Alice, Reba, Uldric, Jr. and Robert and has much detail about his early life, later experiences and impressions. Reminiscences of the Kamehameha Schools by Uldrick Thompson, 1922, provides information about his experiences at the Kamehameha School for Boys.

His family and early years
Thompson's first teaching position
Further training at Oswego Normal School (New York)
Eight years at the German Academy (Hoboken, New Jersey)
In San Francisco
In Honolulu
Horse Riders
A Luau
An adventure at the mountain house in Waialua
The Hawaiians
Statement about their Kamehameha Schools experience
First Impressions
Grant, one of Mr. and Mrs. Bishop's horses
The Shops
The cholera epidemic of 1895
The military system
Morning work
Religious services
Miscellaneous Incidents
Other topics
Genealogy Chart


Uldrick Thompson's father was Ambrose Thompson. His father died of tuberculosis when he was 3 years old. While caring for her husband, his mother contracted the same disease and died a year later. Thompson was orphaned at the age of 4 and his maternal uncle, Uldrick Reynolds and his wife Sarah Myners-Reynolds took him in as one of their own according to the wishes of Thompson's mother.

Uncle Uldrick farmed a large farm halfway between Glens Falls and Saratoga Springs in New York State, U.S.A. There was a wonderful view in all directions and many wild foxes, rabbits, pigeons, duck, geese, crows, squirrels, chipmunks, muskrats and snakes. He and his cousins Frank and Adeline were compatible playmates. Most of Uncle Uldrick's farm was covered with forests. He cut wood for the whole season of heating the house and cooking so that he wouldn't have to stop his other chores to do it along the way. When Uncle Uldrick woke up at 4 a.m., he started the fire with kindling prepared the night before, He lit the stove with thoroughly dry wood. Then he went to the barn and fed the horses and cattle. When he returned to the house, the stove would be red hot and ready for Aunt Sarah's cooking. He called his hired men and read Shakespeare or other books by candlelight until breakfast was ready. After breakfast, the men began the day's work. "Farm life afforded many pleasant experiences. Among these were 'husking bees', and 'quilting bees' donations for the minister, picnics, hunting foxes with hounds, gathering apples and chestnuts; fishing through the ice in winter." (1941, p.6) Farmers of the 1850s produced almost all they needed.

Thompson was raised in a Methodist community and in the Methodist church, but Uncle Uldrick's personal conduct was more influential. Uncle Uldrick attended Church regularly, revival meetings occasionally and Camp meetings not at all. The family kept the Sabbath day by attending church, avoiding unnecessary work, and reading the Bible and good literature. Uncle Uldrick didn't swear, drink or gamble and paid his debts, his word being as good as a bond. Thompson sought to do likewise throughout his life.


There were thirty-six boys and girls in the school. Several boys who were heavier than Thompson had intimidated and harassed every previous teacher . That winter, Thompson managed to 'lick" every one of them. They were not going to lock him in as they had done to the previous teacher. Although there was no affection between them, they respected Thompson and got along reasonably well with him until the last day of the school term. Three of the largest boys including the most hostile failed their geography lessons. Thinking they deliberately planned to fail with some mischief involved, Thompson told the three to remain after school was over. The four filed out with the rest of the class disregarding his orders, but he barred the way and told them to return to their seats. They smiled and winked at each other as they sat down. Thompson locked the door and put the key in his pocket.

Then he faced the boys and gave them three choices: 1) if they took their books, 2) went home and 3) did not return to school (expulsion) , they could leave peacefully. The boys refused .He asked them to get their lessons. They refused. Then said "I must whip the three of you. If you refuse to learn that lesson, I cannot make you learn it; but I shall 'lick' the three of you, if you don't learn it " They said that they would not be "licked" again. This confirmed in Thompson's' mind that this confrontation had been planned. The biggest boy told the other two that they would leave now an stood up moving between the desks toward the door. Thompson knew he could not fight three strong, young men, threw his watch on the table and took out a hickory stick about 2 feet 2 inches long and a half inch thick. Their error was coming down the aisles single file. He raised the stick and said, "Go back to your seat, John, or I will break your head." John looked at the stick and motioned the other two to return to their seats. They were subdued. Thompson says, "I am still thankful that I did not have to strike the boy. I might have killed him. I still shudder at his escape; and mine. "(1941, p. 35)


Mary Sprott, six years older and a family friend, encouraged Thompson to become a professional teacher by enrolling at Oswego Normal School. Teaching was considered a noble, service profession for well-educated youths. He met Alice Haviland of Brooklyn, New York whose father imported Haviland porcelain from Limoges, France. Although they met daily in class or for other student activities, Thompson did not directly engage Miss Haviland in romantic friendship. He was intensely interested in her, but considered her superior to him socially and financially and therefore, unattainable. Fortunately for Thompson, she sensed his interest and responded. One day at an annual school social, she took the initiative saying, "Uldrick, kiss me!" offering her lips. They kissed and understood each other to love the other. He never asked her to become his wife, nor did she ask him to be her husband. It was understood. After 4 years of waiting, they were married at her parents' home on July 5, 1882.


The population of Hoboken was completely German as were the 400 students of the school. Thompson recalls that they were a delight to teach especially in comparison to his first teaching experience. He considered the German community good friends, loyal Americans, and exemplary citizens in every accomplishment. Six of his Oswego classmates joined him as teachers by successfully passing the competitive examination. His interest in woodworking flowered at the German Academy and in addition to academic courses, he offered a course in woodworking two years after his arrival.

Thompson received a letter from General Samuel C. Armstrong, the founder of Hampton Institute. He never knew who recommended him, but Armstrong's sister, Mrs. Weaver, said later that he had found Thompson, a man who could not be duplicated. The letter mentioned that Charles Reed Bishop, who's wife founded the Kamehameha Schools, would be present. Thompson asked Alice what she thought about living in Honolulu and at about 10 p.m that night., she gave him an decisive and affirmative answer. He met Bishop first, then Armstrong and Alice met Bishop. Their contract was signed and their adventure commenced.


The Occidental Hotel was the place where Hawai'i people stayed until it was destroyed by the 1905 earthquake and fire. They sailed out of San Francisco for Hawai'i on August 16, 1889.


Mr. Oleson, principal of the Kamehameha School for Boys, popularly called the Manual School or Department, and Mr. Harry Townsend, the vice-principal, met the Thompsons on the dock. They stayed at the Oleson home for a few days, under a mosquito net. He encountered a giant cockroach for the first time, too. Thompson was assigned to supervise Dormitory D and the Dining Hall.

In those days the only white people he knew were of missionary stock and were very hospitable according to him. He says that Mrs. Thompson met every white woman in town in a few days and their homes were open to them. No one locked their doors and everyone knew everyone in town. There were few flowers, most being introduced from other countries, but there were a lot of ferns of every variety for miles around. Wild bananas, guava and ohia were in abundance. The mountain streams rushing to the sea, the many shades of green and the moonlight are his fond memories.


The Hawaiians men and women were magnificent riders. The cowboys were daring and very picturesque with their Spanish tooled leather saddles, spurs and martingales, colorful bandanas, lauhala hats with mounts laden with ginger wreaths, maile or carnation lei. Horsemanship was a beautiful part of court life. When the King rode through the streets or to the mountains, he was accompanied by about 40-100 pau riders. The women had long swirling skirts and rode astride. The men dressed as the cowboys did and rode at a hard or pleasant gallop. The sound of the horses hoofs could be heard as they rode through the streets.

A LUAU | top

The Hawaiians cook meat exceedingly well in an earth oven called an imu. .Mats were spread upon a level grass area under trees, and covered with ti leaves, ferns and flowers. A wooden bowl or calabash filled with poi is placed for each guests. In addition to the imu-cooked meat , the meal includes meat and fish laulau, sweet potato, 3 kinds of puddings on its own piece of ti leaf; raw and cooked shrimp, baked and grated kukui nut, a small portion of coarse salt, and oranges, bananas, mangoes fruit.

Guests with flower and fern lei sit on the ground legs folded. Meat and fish fall apart in your fingers. To eat, you dip one, two or three fingers in the poi, stir quickly and lift to your mouth. If you put salt on the poi or put poi first into your mouth, the flavor is spoiled. If you place a few small grains of rock salt on your tongue, then add poi it is "ambrosia." Music is played almost continuously throughout the meal that may last 2 hours. Thompson says that the music played at a luau is soothing or sensuous with an occasional chant or mele recited by an older Hawaiian kupuna. Calabashes with water are used to wash your hands and ti leaves serve as napkins.


In 1889, you could ride unhindered on the grass-covered plains from Honolulu to Waialua. In the 3 gulches along the way there was an abundance of goats, pigs, turkey and guava, banana and mango trees. Cattle roamed the plains.

The mountain house five miles about Waialua was free for anyone to occupy when not occupied by someone else. Thompson never knew who owned the house. There was one large room with a hikie, a long sleeping bench the length of the house and a kitchen with stove, two iron kettles and some tin dishes. There was a barn to shelter your horses during a storm.

Thompson's first visit was with Oscar Cox, a Kamehameha School boy. As they ascended to the mountain house, they noticed dark lines in the distance about a half mile away. Cox told him that those lines were deep trails used by people living in the gulch who walked to the sea for fish. They counted forty or more trails from the sea converging into one main trail that zigzagged into the nearby gulch. They explored a gulch and found grass huts rotting on their frames, a clearly delineated irrigation system for taro fields filling the whole gulch, and terraces with orange, mango, guava and water-lemon trees loaded with fruit. But the people had vanished.

On a subsequent visit with Levi Lyman and Thompson's son, Uldric, Jr., they dined on food from a gulch and counted nine kinds of provisions that once sustained a village: turkey, pig, goat, oranges, guava, breadfruit, mango, taro, water-lemon.


Thompson recalls that when you rode into the country, you would meet men and women on horseback or walking barefooted. They always called out "Aloha! Aloha nui! Hele mauka? Hele makai? nodding with their heads toward the mountains or the sea. A gentle smile accompanied the greeting. " All that, including the smile is gone, -- vanished in twenty-five years." (1941, p. 87)

Thompson recalls that the Hawaiian diet consisted of taro, fish and fruit. Each family had their own taro patch. Fish were abundant and easy to catch and abundant fruit grew in wild in the mountains. One day's work, a week in the taro patch produced food for a family. There was no necessity to toil every day for sustenance.

With urbanization and artificial means to support their lives, present day Hawaiians find that even six days of work will not supply their daily needs.

"Many of the old Hawaiians were beautifully formed and very graceful. One frequently saw Hawaiian women, bare-headed, bare-footed, robed in a simple holoku walking in the middle of the road or street, with such grace and dignity as a queen might envy. Their speakers were fluent, magnetic and graceful -- as long a s they spoke in Hawaiian. Often the audience was held so closely that when the speaker asked a question, the spontaneous response came as one voice. But this fluency and magnetism and grace are vanishing also. A Hawaiian speaking in English and trying to add American gestures, is not at his best..". (1941, p.88)

Thompson writes that the Hawaiians were gigantic in stature. They had to be in order to throw their large spears with enough force to inflict damage. They were courageous as demonstrated by their canoe voyages of thousands of miles, their battles and their sports. They were patient and persevering as shown in their fine craftsmanship especially in the making of tapa and of their woodworking. They were industrious and ingenious as shown in their terraces and irrigation systems.They were honest and hospitable and intelligent. Only the most intelligent of people could produce mele of such complexity.

Most of that stock was killed off in their wars" ...Only a small remnant remains. And these are disappearing, partly through diseases and partly through amalgamation with other races. ..It remains for this remnant of a great people to learn how best to keep and how best to transmit to their children these qualities they are proud to say their ancestors possessed." (1941, p. 89)


"Mrs. Thompson and I and the children, had an ideal life on The Kamehameha Campus. We would not have exchanged our experiences there for anything that might have been offered "ON THE MAINLAND. " (1941, p. 116)


"You who come to Kamehameha and find it as it now is, cannot conceive the degree of barrenness that greeted us that day. No rain for two years! Not a blade of green grass or even a weed in sight! The few algaroba trees scattered about were not taller than an man, and seemed as stunted and discouraged as the mesquite of Arizona. And rocks, rocks, rocks everywhere, with cracks in they clay between large enough to put your foot in.

The walls of Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum were about one story high. Ground for Bishop Hall had not been broken. The principal's cottage and Cottage A, the Dining Hall, Dormitories A, B, C, D; a small wooden structure shared by the classes in printing and the classes in tailoring; a small wood-turning shop; a 12' x 18' blacksmith shop; a 20 x 30' swimming tank; a very small boiler and miniature pump with a small waste tank, roughly housed; and the Gymnasium, comprised the buildings of the Manual department. The Preparatory Department buildings were very much as they are today, only the play house was out in front and to the right.

Only two reasons were never given me for selecting such a site for these schools. The fact that this site was a part of the Bishop Estate was one reason. And the fact that Mr. S. M. Damon, one of the original Trustees, had already begun to develop his beautiful Moanalua Estate and wanted the schools here to prevent the Orientals from spreading out in that direction is another reason."" (1922, p. 8)

The campus provided two companies in Honolulu with thousands of loads of rock for ballast. Several boys paid for their school expenses by breaking rocks, but this was considered unpopular 'Portuguese' work. In 1889, the only area cleared of rocks was the baseball diamond.

The roads were made of coral rock and so were trying to the eyes. This coral rock ground up easily and when rain came the mud of the roads mingled with the campus mud and the floors of the dormitories and dining hall were coated with the combination. At times hoes were needed in cleaning the floors because brooms were useless." (1922, p. 12)

GRANT, one of Mr. and Mrs. Bishop's horses | top

"...Soon after this school was organized Mr. Bishop gave Mr. Oleson a two seated carriage and Grant for school use. So I found Grant on our Campus in 1889. Grant was long and tall and, in 1889, lean. Once he had been a bay, but his hair had thinned and faded till it was a grayish sorrel. Even his eyelashes were white. He was so gentle that the Oleson children played between his legs and pulled his mane or tail without his showing resentment.

No one knew how old Grant was but rumor placed his age as above 30 years in 1889. His running days were over but Grant would go to town or return with seldom a break in his slow trot. Once he went to sleep while hitched to a post in town, fell and wrecked the thills. But he slowly rose to his fee and stood as though nothing unusual had happened.

When Mr. Richards became principal he inherited Grant, but in 1894 Grant had become too slow for the new generation. On May 29th, 1894 a new horse was purchased and Grant was set at more menial tasks. In April, 1897 Grant was too slow for even the lighter tasks and so was turn out to rest. He was well cared for until about 1899 when he became so weak we knew the end was near. I did the kindest thing possible--I shot Grant. All honor to Grant! He served the highest and nearly the lowest, always faithfully. What more can any of us do?" (1922, 13)


The printing shop and tailor shop was about 75 feet from the road leading to the lower gate and waikiki of Cottage F. The tailor shop was where small boys learned to make pillow cases and mosquito nets, hemmed sheets, napkins and table cloths and mended their own clothes. In 1895 Mr. David Kanuha, a native Hawaiian who had worked at Hampton Institute, was the teacher. It closed in 1913. At that time, not only were the items mentioned previously made there but all uniforms, khaki suits, jumpers, workshirts, teacher's shirts and dormitory mattresses were also made there. It was financially self-sufficient. The forge shop was waikiki of the printing and tailor shops. The small building contained one anvil, one forge and old-fashioned hand bellows. The wood turning shop was small with several foot-powered lathes. The carpenter shop was a 20' x 30' building where they learned to make small items and to keep their tools sharpened. In 1890 a new building was erected to house the forge shop, the wood turning shop, the machine shop, the new boiler and pump, the electric plant and the patternmaking shop. In 1907 new shops were to be built for $34,189.00.


During the epidemic, many Hawaiian families could not work and were in need. The Kamehameha Schools built a food station building in Kalihi and Thompson and some of the boys built the building. Some of the teachers distributed the food and medicine. Miss Lottie Beckley organized the Hawaiians in Kalihi to help, but she was not in good health and died early in 1896.


Thompson thinks that Mr. Oleson organized the military system in 1888. Officers were appointed by Mr. Oleson and were responsible for discipline and marching to and from town. At other times they were off duty. Mr. Oleson was in charge of drills, but teachers joined in the marches to church or other meetings. Mr. Clarendon Davis, the teacher who arrived with Thompson, had attended a military academy as a boy and Mr. Oleson asked him to be in charge of drills. Not enthusiastic about his childhood experiences, Mr. Davis was often absent. When he left in 1891, Mr. Babb took charge and did a better job.

When Mr. Richards became Principal, the officers were chosen by joint ballot of the principal, and all faculty members. Officers were to keep order in the dormitories. When Mr. Babb left, Mr. Charles Perry improved the drills by introducing the use of wooden guns made in the shops. In September 1899, the boys wore their uniforms to class and drills. In early 1900, Sergeant Wilson, newly resigned from the U.S. Army improved drills, but was often off duty and soon disappeared without a trace.The girls from Kamehameha School for Girls were invited once a month to increase the attractiveness of being an officer. On May 20, 1900 the first public Cress Parade was held and invitations were sent to a hundred townspeople.


" One and one half hours work, before breakfast was required of every boy, from the first day of organization. The rising bell sounded at 5:30 a.m.; the Morning Work began at 5:45 and continued till 7 o'clock. Then breakfast.

This work consisted of care of the buildings, grounds; helping about the kitchen and dining room; cutting wood for the school fires and for the teachers; and in clearing the Campus of rocks and weeds. Mr. Oleson was out nearly every morning, supervising the work of the boys.

But so many colds developed, attributed to exposure to rain and to severe exercise without food, that early in 1898, each boy was given a cup of coffee and a piece of pilot bread before beginning work. And in October 1899, breakfast was served before the boys went to their morning work.

Up to October, 1895, each boy was assigned to some definite work when he entered school; and he continued that special work during the whole of that year. Possibly, longer. For example, a boy was assigned to ringing the bell for each change of class or of work; meals' etc. and he did nothing else. He learned that one thing; and he learned nothing else. It was astonishing how quickly one of those giants could ring a ten-pound bell to pieces.

But early in the fall term of 1895, a system was worked out by which every boy was scheduled for the year; and changed his work at the beginning of the month...this system went into effect and has continued, with modifications, down to the present." (1922, p. 37)


There was a great need for trained, skilled local labor and businessmen anticipated that Kamehameha Schools would provide the training for young Hawaiians in the trade and service industries. Those who failed would become intelligent laborers.

"...They believed also that a good percent would prove capable of filling positions of responsibility. These men were sincerely interested in the Hawaiian youth; and they promptly showed this interest by sending boys here and paying all expenses.

Mr. B. F. Dillingham expressed the interest of many men in these words, " If this boy works for anyone in this world, he is working for me". The general feeling was, these boys should have the best chance in life But the results were not always just what the patrons hoped for. Too many of the boys, feeling that their expenses were paid; and feeling sure of three meals a day, did not seem to care a cent whether school kept or not.

One of the experiments Mr. Richards worked out was to give the boys a chance to pay their own way at Kamehameha, rather than be dependent upon others.

Acting upon Mr. Richards' suggestion, our Trustees on June 15th, 1894, authorized twenty-five Work Scholarships. The plan was to select twenty-five reliable boys; pay each ten cents an hour for his work; and have them do only such work as would otherwise be done by outside labor and paid for by the Estate. In short each boy was to earn that money for the Estate.

Getting the boys to realize that self-support as better for each boy than depending upon either their parents or patrons, was not managed in one day. But Mr. Richards succeeded in getting the twenty-five boys to try the experiment. One plan was to have the Work Scholarship boys produce all the taro the Schools needed and to this end several taro fields up Kalihi were turned over to the Schools by the Estate. Another plan was to have the Work Scholarship boys produce all the milk the Schools needed and to this end several cows were bought, sorghum was planted and a dairy started.

The Chinese taro growers up Kalihi were hostile to our taro growing; and they stole so much water that in 1899 the production of taro was abandoned and the Chinese won back the taro fields.

In 1898 the Work Scholarships were increased to sixty-five. About fifty boys took advantage of these Work Scholarships, leaving about fifteen to be disposed of. After a conference with Miss Pope the following announcement was made, - "Next Thursday morning ten of the most reliable Work Scholarship boys will be excused at 11:30. You will dress properly; go over to the Girls' School' see the girls prepare their dinner; and remain to dine with them.This arrangement will be repeated during the rest of this year". Two days after that dinner, every Work Scholarship was taken; and others were asked for..." (1922, p. 39-40)


"Mr. Oleson was both orthodox and practical in religious matters. He believed the Bible implicitly and there was no compromise in his nature; but his sermons and talks for our boys were quite as much about every-day affairs as about a future state.

We had devotional exercises every morning at 8:30; and every evening before study began. There was a prayer meeting every Wednesday evening; and every Sunday afternoon. The boys usually marched down to Kaumakapili every Sunday morning for Sunday School and remained to church service. (Kaumakapili then stood about where the Liberty Theater now stands). Sunday evenings they had a strong sermon or talk by Mr. Oleson or by someone invited from town. Later if the Sunday evening, nearest full moon, was pleasant, the boys marched down and back and attended service at one of the several churches in town. Occasionally they marched down and returned on the tram cars... " (1922, p. 41)


The death of Charles Oleson, the son of the Principal. Charles made or bought Christmas presents for each Preparatory school teacher and spent early Christmas morning of 1888 delivering his gifts. It was dawn and barely light. He walked through the lattice door and into the glass window shattering it into sharp pieces. One piece severed a large artery in his leg. Miss Reamer heard his call for help. A physician and Mr. Oleson were immediately summoned, but Charles had lost so much blood that he died in an hour.

A fall from Bishop Hall tower. A Portuguese was on the scaffolding ready to swing a piece of coping into place when the derrick broke and hit the plank on which the man was standing. He and the coping stone fell to a pile of stone and lumber debris below. Mr. Thompson was in the carpenter shop when it happened and Mr. Oleson was at home. The sound of the crash sent everyone running to the site. The Portuguese was freed from the rubble and carried to Mr. Oleson's home where Dr. Day treated his cuts and bruises. Fortunately, he had not broken a bone and was back at work several weeks later.

A fall from the mauka wall of the Hawaiian Hall. A Portuguese was placing a stone 12 feet from the ground. The stone caught under the plank and tilted it. He was killed instantly when he fell.

Fall from the roof of the Hawaiian Hall. A Hawaiian man was placing glass in the skylight when he probably stepped on the glass and broke it under his weight. He fell into the heiau below and died instantly.

June 16, 1886. James Upchurch and other boys were clearing a building lot for Mr. Kanuha, the tailor shop teacher. Dynamite failed to explode. Mr. Upchurch decided that he would get it out and add a new fuse when it exploded. Mr. Upchurch was burned and cut and his eyes were damaged. Dr. Wood called in another physician who said that both eyes should be removed immediately. Dr. Wood refused and managed to save one eye that allowed him to read coarse print. Later, James Upchurch became a pastor of a church in Hawaii.

Charles William cutting firewood with a power saw. The saw was stationery. When Charles was waiting for another boy to lay the next piece upon the table, the boy leaned against the table. It moved forward and brought Charles' knee against the revolving saw blade. Charles suffered a severe injury. When it healed, his knee was rigid. He was never in good health thereafter and died in a few years.

The installation of the new electric plant. The wires were live. The current was from the Hawaiian Electric Company. One evening, Guy Owen, an electrician from town went up the pole near the shop to adjust the wiring. Mr. Gill, the Kamehameha Schools electrician, and Mr. Clifford Thompson, the School Agriculturist waited for Mr. Owen to return and wondered about his long absence. When they looked for him, he was lying across the wires at the top of the pole. It took awhile for Hawaiian Electric to shut off the current, then Thompson climbed a ladder and brought the body down.


There are many anecdotes. Here is the last one:

" Miss Pope wanted a load of coral and a boys was sent over with it. The Portuguese said it was too coarse and sent it back. The man in charge of the farm said, "Take that load back and dump it. If it is too coarse the Portuguese can break it as fine as he wants it. The boy dumped the load and remarked, "If it is too coarse you can pound it into molecules, if you want to!" At that the Portuguese struck the boy and a lively fight was on. Other boys tore the two apart; the Portuguese took the boy before Miss Pope. He told a perfectly straight story and ended with " He said I could pound it into molecules. Now Miss Pope, I ain 't going to have no kanaka boy swearing at me like that." (1922, copy 2, p. 141)


The following are the broad headings in the 1921 Reminiscences. If interest in a topic, contact us.

The Kamehameha Schools, Our First Impressions, Our Campus, Buildings, Our Water Supply, Shops, Faculty Activities, School Activities, Athletics, Our Lighting System, The School Year, Members of Early Faculties, Holidays, Camping, Pertaining to Health, Political, Financial, Our Agricultural Department, Rain and Rainbows, Accidents, Incidents, The Pioneer Days, The Hawaiian People, The Founders, Miscellaneous Incidents


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