Ka Waihona Palapala Kahiko O Nā Kula ʻO Kamehameha ma Kapālama      



1990-1999 Highlights



• Japanese invest $3.8 billion in Hawai’i. At the peak, they own 11% of the Island’s real estate and 65% of the hotels.

  1. Castle & Cooke announce plans to close pineapple production on Lana’i.

  2. Hotel  workers stage their first strike.

  3. Bishop Museum celebrates its Centennial with the opening of the $6.5 million Castle Memorial Building

  4. Lava from Kilauea volcano covers Kalapana Gardens, Black Sand Beach and other landmarks.


Sixty KS students, ten staff member and several Polynesian Voyaging Society representatives travel to Aotearoa..for the bicentennial of the British arrival and the 15oth anniversary of the Treaty of Waitangi.  He Aha Ka Meahou Ma Kamehameha, Winter 1990


About 200 students enroll in life skill classes like Teen Health, Personal Health, Child Development (parenting), Human Relations (dating, love, marriage), Independent Living, Food and Nutrition and Clothing and Design.

He Aha Ka Meahou Ma Kamehameha, Spring 1990, p. 6

  1. Kamehameha Schools holds its first annual alumni week on campus June 11-17.

  2. Kamehameha Schools operates four post-high programs, three funded by KSBE and two funded by the U.S. government.

He Aha Ka Meahou Ma Kamehameha, Summer 1990.


Judge DAVID ALLEN EZRA  ruled that Bill 81 passed by the Honolulu City Council in 1990 was unconstitutional. The bill would impose a maximum ceiling on renegotiated lease rents for residential condominiums in Honolulu.  KS/BE owns 114 condominium projects.  The judge reasoned that the bill would not lower the cost of leasehold housing and was an unfair regulation of private property.  He Aha Ka Meahou Ma Kamehameha, Spring 1991, p. 3.

Performing arts instruction includes choral music, band, orchestra, guitar, Hawaiian chant and dance, jazz dance, drama, scenic design and enrolls about 450 students annually.  About 3000 graduates work in the entertainment field. He Aha Ka Meahou Ma Kamehameha, Summer 1991, p. 4.

KS/BE returns to a selective admissions policy rather than a random selection policy for children applying to kindergarten. Admissions policies remain controversial.  He Aha Ka Meahou Ma Kamehameha, Spring 1991, p. 4.


JANET ZISK is hired on January 13 by high school principal, ANTHONY RAMOS, KSB 1958, to open an Archives for the Schools located in Midkiff Learning Center. The impetus is the Centennial of the Kamehameha Schools for Girls in 1994.


ALAPAKI NĀHALEʻA, KSK 1986, teaches about Hawaiian sovereignty for Kumu KĀWIKA EYRE’S first year Hawaiian language classes. Ka Mo’i, March 3, 1992.

Photo credit:  hawaiitribune-herald.com


All male freshmen and sophomores are required to enroll in one semester rather than a full year of J.R.O.T.C. Ka Mo’i, April 29, 1992.


He Aha Ka Meahou Ma Kamehameha becomes IMUA, the quarterly magazine.  The intent:  to share news of Kamehameha Schools / Bernice Pauahi Bishop Estate with the KS/BE ‘ohana--alumni, students, parents, staff and friends. Imua, Spring 1992.


1992 Fall.  Haumana wear school uniforms. Boys have navy blue pleated twill pants or walking shorts and sky blue, royal blue or white polo shirts.  Girls have the same colored shirts, jumper, culottes, pleated pants or walking shorts  Imua Fall 1992.

KS/BE invests $250 million in Goldman Sachs Group, L.P.  KS/BE invests in land, and commercial property in Hawai’i, and the U.S mainland and in financial investments in the U.S. mainland and abroad. Imua, Fall 1992.

RICHARD (DICKIE) SUNG HONG WONG becomes the 29th KS/BE Trustee (1993-May 7, 1999)


MARION  MAE LOKELANI  MAPLES LINDSEY becomes a KS/BE Trustee (February 28, 1993-May 6, 1999). The first woman appointee, her fellow trustees give her carte blanche as the Education and Communications lead trustee. 



GERARD AULAMA JERVIS becomes Trustee (November 25, 1994-August 20, 1999) replacing retiring Trustee Myron Thompson. Imua, Winter 1994



Centennial Celebration

Opening date:  November 12, 1894

Dedication date:  December 19, 1884

1994-1995 school events feature Pauahi and KSG alumnae.  Oral history audio tapes are recorded.  Short biographies of notable alumnae are published. T-shirts, a calendar, books, pamphlets, a gold Hawaiian bracelet and many more items were created. 


ROCKNE FREITAS KSB 1963, former NFL pro and UHM VP of University Relations,  is the new Vice President of KS/BE. Imua, Fall 1995  Trustee LINDSEY empowers him to run the Schools relegating President CHUN to curriculum and planning.

Broken Trust by Samuel P. King & Randall W. Roth, 111.


New Trustees initiate

expansion programs:

  1. new elementary schools on  Maui and Hawai’i

  2. 12 new preschool classrooms

  3. 6 additional reading teachers

  4. KES students do not take entry tests for 7th grade

Imua, Fall 1995

Hōkūle’a and Hawai’iloa visit indigenous people along the North American west coast. Crew members include GORDON PI’IĀNAI’A, KSB 1958, LAULIMA LYMAN, KSK 1997, KU’ULEI IHARA, KSG 1941, JASON KEKOA HO, KSK 1995, MELVIN PAOA, KSK 1971. Imua, Fall 1995

Kumu EKELA  KANIAUPIO-CROZIER teaches  her popular Kulāiwi ‘ōlelo Hawai’i classes to Oceanic Cable Channel 26. Imua, Fall 1995.


Hawaiian values are incorporated into the KSBE  mission statement:

  1. ‘Imii ‘Ike - to seek knowledge

  2. Laulima - to work cooperatively

  3. Lokomaika’i - to be kind and generous

  4. Na’au Pono - to have a deep sense of justice

  5. Mālama - to care for each other

  6. Ha’aha’a - to be humble

September 1996.  K-8 schools planned on Maui and Hawai’i islands open with grades K-3 and add a grade each year.  CORDY MACLAUGHLIN is principal of Kamehameha Schools-Maui at Pukalani. BARBARA ROBERTSON opens the Hawai’i campus at Kea’au. 


Restoration of cultural sites begins at Keauhou Bay Resort by KSBE subsidiary Kamehameha Investment Corporation (KIC). Imua, Spring 1997

EDUCATION STRATEGIC PLAN 1997-2005 is introduced by Dr. Michael Chun.

Imua, Spring 1997

Conflict erupts between Trustees and Kapālama campus personnel over Trustee LINDSEY’s management of the campus.broken_trust_controversy.html


  1. The Gulf War begins in Kuwait. 7000 Kaneohe based troops serve in Operation Desert Storm in the Persian Gulf.

  2. Ke Koa makule women’s soccer team wins a national championship.

  3. Hawaiian Airlines posts its largest loss.

  4. Ala Moana Shopping Center expands bringing in Neiman Marcus and adding 1500 parking stalls.

  5. Carolyn Sapp is Miss America.

  6. Soviet Union collapses.


  1. The first web page is created.


  1. Dole closes its ‘Iwilei Cannery

  2. Hamakua sugar plantation, the last, closes.

  3. Hurricane Iniki strikes causing $1.8 billion in damages.

  4. Hawai’i Pacific University and Hawai’i Loa College merge under the Hawai’i Pacific name.

  5. Hokule’a embarks on the Voyage of Rediscovery, its longest.

  6. Bosnian War begins with the seige of Sarajevo.



  1. Centennial of the overthrow of the Monarchy is observed.

  2. Kaho’olawe returns to State control.

  3. U.S. Congress apologies to Hawaiian for illegally taking their government.  hawaiianhistory.org


  1. Ben Cayatano is the first governor of Filipino ancestry.

  2. Hawaiian Airlines emerges from bankrupcy.

  3. Aloha Tower Marketplace opens.

  4. Waialua Sugar Company will close down over a year and a half.

  5. Paradise Park  in Manoa closes.

  6. Honolulu temperature reaches 95 degrees, the hottest.

  7. Apartheid ends in South Africa.

  8. Rwanda ethnic genocide begins.

  9. The Channel Tunnel (Chunnel) between England and France opens. hawaiihistory.org


  1. Hawaiian activists are evicted from Makapu’u and Kaupo beach parks and resettled on agricultural land in Waimanalo.

  2. Arakawa, the 86 year old plantation store in Waipahu, closes.

  3. Waipahu Sugar closes.

  4. Chef Alan Wong opens his first restaurant in Honolulu

  5. Waialae Elementary becomes the first student centered school.

  6. O.J. Simpson is acquitted of murder.

  7. A truck bomb explodes in Oklahoma City.

  8. Netscape goes public and the Internet stock boom begins.

  9. hawaiihistory.org

  1. Commercialization of the Internet becomes widespread.



  1. Political sovereignty for Native Hawaiians is delayed in court.

  2. Ka’u sugar processes its last load.

  3. Kona’s Keahole Airport receives its first direct flight from Japan.



• “Broken Trust” newspaper articles lead to the investigation of Bishop Estate Trustees.

  1. H-3 freeway connects Kaneohe Marine Base and Pearl Harbor.


...KS/BE operates about 50 community and early education programs in 115 communities statewide

He Aha Ka Meahou Ma Kamehameha, Spring 1991, p. 3.

Trustee LINDSEY and her Hawaiian Language Committee intrude upon the teaching and use of the Hawaiian language by Hawaiian language teachers at Kapālama.

Against the advice of the Schools librarians, Trustee LINDSEY wins the approval of other Trustees except OZ STENDAR to purchase Robert Van Dyke’s Collection for  $425,000. More money and years are spent to process a resource collection of limited use to the Schools.

Trustees approve LINDSEY consultant recommendations called Go Forward to build 2 new schools and fund them by closing popular extension programs. STENDAR argues too late that extension programs could be retained. Results:  14% of the workforce is terminated and institutional morale declines. 

Trustee LINDSEY contracts with Educational Management Group (EMG) to use their proprietary software and curriculum which is rejected by teachers as unsuitable. Before the contract is terminated, KS/BE spends about $6 million. 

Broken Trust by Samuel P. King & Randall W. Roth, 115-117

December 16, 1993 memo removes the slash (/)  from Kamehameha Schools/ Bishop Estate (KS/BE)  to Kamehameha Schools Bishop Estate (KSBE).

Hui Kālai ʻĀina traveled to Washington, D.C. to learn about the American system of government. They were joined by other Hawai’i and mainland school students. Ka Mo’i, April 29, 1992.


Polynesians                     Preparatory and Girls        1925-1939          1960ʻs             1990ʻs            2005-06         2010-11

Kingdom of Hawaiʻi         A U.S. territory                    1940ʻs                1970ʻs              2000-02         2007-08        2012-13

Founding and Boys          1910-1924                          1950ʻs                1980ʻs              2003-04        2008-09         2013-14

Shopping centers fund KS/BE programs. KS/BE owns the land under Windward and Kahala Malls, Pearlridge, Kamehameha, Hawai’i Kai, Pearl Kai, Koko Marina, Kāne’ohe Bay, Puck’s Alley and Dillingham Plaza.  The Royal Hawaiian and the Keauhou Village Shopping Centers are owned and managed by KS/BE. He Aha Ka Meahou Ma Kamehameha, Summer 1990.